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This 2002 photo shows the northbound Yankee Division Highway (I-95 and MA 128) approaching EXITS 32 A-B (US 3 / Northwest Expressway and Middlesex Turnpike) in Burlington. (Photo by Jim K. Georges.)

PLANNED NEARLY A CENTURY AGO: As early as 1912, the commonwealth of Massachusetts planned a circumferential arterial road stretching out from a 20-mile radius of downtown Boston, some five miles beyond the 15-mile radius formed by the existing Route 128. Beginning in Gloucester, the circumferential route was to run through Peabody, Reading, Wilmington, Burlington, Bedford, Weston, Wellesley, Norwood, Canton, Randolph and Weymouth before ending in Cohasset. Serving as a bypass for metropolitan Boston, the route was to connect to radial routes through the inner suburbs to Boston.

While a high-speed arterial was never constructed, the Massachusetts Department of Public Works (MassDPW) designated a series of local streets as "Route 128" during the 1920's and early 1930's. Through each community, MA 128 went through the following local streets to form a circumferential route from Hull on the South Shore to Gloucester on the North Shore:

  • Hull: Nantasket Avenue
  • Hingham: Hull Street, East Street, Leavitt Street, Short Street, Main Street, Whiting Street, Derby Street
  • Weymouth: Ralph Talbot Street, Park Avenue, Columbian Street
  • Braintree: Columbian Street, Grove Street, Plain Street, Washington Street, Franklin Street, West Street, Blue Hill River Road
  • Quincy: Blue Hill River Road
  • Milton: West Milton Street, Neponset Valley Parkway
  • Boston: Neponset Valley Parkway, Sprague Street, West Milton Street
  • Needham: Dedham Avenue, Highland Avenue
  • Newton: Needham Street, Winchester Street, Centre Street, Walnut Street, Crafts Street, Waltham Street
  • Waltham: High Street, Newton Street, Main Street, Lexington Street
  • Lexington: Waltham Street, Massachusetts Avenue, Woburn Street
  • Woburn: Lexington Street, Pleasant Street, Main Street, Montvale Avenue
  • Stoneham: Montvale Avenue, Main Street, Elm Street
  • Wakefield: Albion Street, North Avenue, Water Street, Vernon Street, New Salem Street, Salem Street
  • Lynnfield: Salem Street
  • Peabody: Lynnfield Street, Washington Street, Main Street
  • Salem: Boston Street, Bridge Street
  • Beverly: Cabot Street, Essex Street
  • Wenham: Essex Street, Grapevine Road, Rubbly Road
  • Hamilton: Woodbury Street, Essex Street
  • Essex: Western Avenue, Martin Street, Main Street, Eastern Avenue
  • Gloucester: Essex Avenue

These two photos show the Yankee Division Highway circa 1958. LEFT: Construction is underway on reconstructing the 22.5 miles of MA 128 from Wellesley to Lynnfield. This section, which originally opened in 1951, was widened from four to eight lanes. (Photo by Massachusetts Department of Public Works.) RIGHT: This photo shows part of the Wellesley-to-Dedham section of six-lane MA 128 that was completed in the mid-1950's. (Photo by Cabot, Cabot and Forbes.)

A HIGHWAY TO NOWHERE? In 1934, newly appointed MassDPW commissioner William F. Callahan unveiled plans for the "Circumferential Highway," a controlled-access highway that would connect radial routes while serving as a beltway around Boston. The beltway concept was not new: five years earlier, the Regional Plan Association (RPA) proposed a limited-access highway around the New York-New Jersey metropolitan area, the precursor to today's I-287. However, the Boston beltway was the first one to move from the concept stage to construction.

The Circumferential Highway was one of many highway projects overseen by Callahan that put thousands of people to work in eastern Massachusetts. Funding for the Circumferential Highway came through the Federal Works Progress Administration (WPA).

To expedite the completion of the expressway, Callahan selected a route through farms and wetlands, and by doing so, steered clear of town centers. This philosophy, while avoiding the "not in my backyard" ("NIMBY") syndrome that doomed future projects, was derided by business leaders, realtors and even the New England chapter of the American Automobile Association (AAA), which called the road a "highway to nowhere." Proponents of the highway cited that the new Route 128 would aid in defense mobilization efforts, and bring the recreation areas of the North Shore and South Shore within easy reach of urban areas.

From 1936 to 1941, the MassDPW constructed two stretches of the new four-lane MA 128: one southwest of Boston in the Dedham-Westwood area, the other northeast of Boston in the Lynnfield-Peabody-Danvers area. Only partial access was obtained on these early sections: grade-separated cloverleaf interchanges were constructed at important crossroads, but several minor roads were allowed to cross at grade.

Progress on the new expressway slowed significantly when newly elected Governor Leverett Saltonstall removed Callahan from the MassDPW chairmanship. With funding commitments diminished, work continued on the sections still under construction, but no new sections were built. Work on Route 128 halted altogether with the onset of World War II.

This 1962 photo shows the reconstructed interchange between MA 128 (Yankee Division Highway), US 1 and MA 129 on the Peabody-Lynnfield border. The new interchange, which borders Suntaug Lake, replaced a cramped interchange with tight ramps and no acceleration-deceleration lanes. It was constructed in conjunction with the six-lane widening of Route 128 through the area. (Photo by Massachusetts Department of Public Works.)

ROUTE 128 REVIVED: It was not until 1948, when newly elected Governor Paul Dever reappointed Callahan to his MassDPW post, that work on the Circumferential Highway - now re-christened the "Yankee Division Highway" - had resumed. The Master Highway Plan for the Boston Metropolitan Area released that year stated that the circumferential route would connect the radial expressways then being proposed to run into the Boston urban core.

Under the Federal Highway Act of 1944, the Federal government paid for half the cost of the new MA 128, while state and local governments paid the remaining funds. The MassDPW lobbied Federal highway officials to get the beltway onto the proposed Interstate highway system - under which the MassDPW would be reimbursed for 90 percent of construction and right-of-way costs - but was unsuccessful.

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION: In its original design, Route 128 was to have four 12-foot-wide lanes (two in each direction), with opposing lanes of traffic separated by a 24-foot-wide grassed median. Callahan desired a six-lane design, but the Federal Bureau of Public Roads (BPR) denied Callahan's plan after engineers determined that a four-lane design would handle traffic adequately for 20 years. They estimated that an average section of MA 128 would handle 15,000 vehicles per day (AADT) by 1970, but by 1955, the average section was already handling 30,000 vehicles per day.

Overpasses and bridges, which were designed with steel girders and stone-faced abutments, were constructed with sidewalks not to accommodate pedestrians, but to allow the construction of an additional lane in each direction. Landscaped areas were to separate the highway from the communities through which it passed.

Construction progressed on the Yankee Division Highway in the following sequence:

  • 1951: The MassDPW completed a 22.5-mile-long stretch of MA 128 from EXIT 20 (MA 9) in Wellesley north to EXIT 44 (US 1 and MA 129) in Lynnfield. Built under nine separate, simultaneous projects, the new section connected to the previously completed Lynnfield-to-Danvers section to the north and east. Because it was built through the farmland and rolling hills of what was then Boston's outer suburbs, construction time was limited to 18 months. Inspired by the design of the Merritt Parkway in Connecticut, Callahan used different designs for each bridge.

  • 1953: The route was extended north from Danvers to the rotary at EXIT 11 (MA 127 / Washington Street) in Gloucester. This section of MA 128 was built under eight separate contracts, and the tough geography along this section - swampy land interspersed with solid granite - made construction difficult. It also included the construction of the Abram Piatt Andrew Bridge, a four-lane, steel-arch span over the Annisquam River that replaced a congested two-lane drawbridge. The bridge was named after the former U.S. Congressman who served Gloucester from 1921 until his death in 1936.

  • 1955: The existing four-lane MA 128 was reconstructed as a modern six-lane freeway from EXIT 20 (MA 9) in Wellesley south to EXIT 14 (US 1) in Dedham. The southbound lanes were built on new right-of-way, while the northbound lanes were built over the existing four-lane highway. South of US 1 in Dedham, the six-lane highway was extended on new right-of-way to the current I-93 EXIT 2 (MA 138) in Canton. No provisions were made for a future interchange with I-95 (this did not come until the mid-1960's).

  • 1958: The route was extended south from Canton to the "Braintree Split," a "Y-interchange" with the Southeast Expressway (I-93, US 1 and MA 3) and the Pilgrims Highway (MA 3). Another "Y-interchange" was built to connect MA 128 with the Fall River Expressway (MA 24). Construction of this section began in late 1953, but its construction through the Blue Hills Reservation generated controversy.

  • 1959: The route was extended slightly through Gloucester from to its terminus at EXIT 9 (MA 127A / Main Street). This section contains a rotary at EXIT 10 (Rockport Road), which still exists today.

By the time of its completion in 1959, the Yankee Division Highway was estimated to cost $63 million in construction and right-of-way expenses.

For the convenience of motorists, service areas offering automotive and restaurant services were constructed along MA 128 in Wellesley (southbound only), Lexington (northbound only) and Beverly (northbound only). Since these areas where completed before the construction of the Interstate highway system, they were permitted to continue operation, and remain open to this day.

Original design plans also called for the construction of a mass transit line running along the median of MA 128, and bicycle paths and hiking trails along the landscaped areas bordering the expressway. These plans never were implemented.

This 2000 photo shows the northbound I-95 and MA 128 (Yankee Division Highway) at EXIT 45 (MA 128) in Peabody. The Peabody interchange was completed in 1988, long after the I-95 section south of MA 128 had been canceled. Three lanes are provided for northbound MA 128 traffic, while two lanes are provided for northbound I-95 through traffic. The project included the reconstruction of a short section of MA 128 through Peabody, just beyond the I-95 interchange. (Photo by Steve Anderson.)

A POSTWAR VISION REALIZED: With rapid suburbanization imminent, the value of Route 128 soon became apparent. In 1948, Gerald W. Blakely, Jr., the son of a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) professor and head of the industrial development division of Cabot, Cabot and Forbes, obtained a copy of the Master Highway Plan. He envisioned that for the newly high-tech industries of the postwar era, the value of Route 128 and other proposed highways lie in their proximity to MIT.

As each new section of MA 128 opened, new office parks sprouted along the highway's interchanges. Unlike the old industrial areas of Boston and other older Massachusetts cities, the new industrial parks designed by Blakely were landscaped campuses with low-rise buildings, setbacks and rear parking lots to make it easier to obtain local permits. The new suburban sites gave high-tech companies room to expand while being within easy reach of the research facilities at MIT.

The following excerpt from the 1958
Route 128 Study developed by MIT further described the growth along the circumferential corridor:

By locating Route 128 in vacant land just outside existing developed areas, it was possible to meet most engineering requirements, bypass the centers of towns surrounding Boston, keep land costs low and avoid disturbing homeowners. As a circumferential highway, the route cut across large sectors of undeveloped land between older radial highways.

Both the timing and location of the highway were ideal for opening up land necessary to satisfy the outward (or suburban) movement of people and industry that took place in the postwar period. The highways gave access to low-priced land in areas on the edge of the metropolitan labor market not too far from the core of the city, and yet close to attractive suburbs. At the same time, many businesses in the core were expanding to the point where they could no longer operate efficiently in obsolete buildings on cramped sites. Developers took advantage of this situation and promoted the development of industrial sites on Route 128. In considering the phenomenon of Route 128, these factors must be taken into account. What the character of the expansion would have been without Route 128 is problematical. However, if we consider the amount and nature of the land available within the central city and along radial highways, it is more than likely that the growth would have been less rapid, less extensive and less attractive than has been the case.

From 1953 to 1961, 169 businesses employing 24,000 people moved to locations adjacent to MA 128, and many others moved to within close proximity. Soon, the Yankee Division Highway was informally dubbed "America's Technology Highway" (though attempts to make this the official name failed). As the new office parks rose along MA 128, housing developments and shopping centers soon followed. During the 1950's, residential population in many towns along MA 128 quadrupled, and in the 1960's, it doubled again. Blakely later remarked on this in the following interview with
The Boston Globe:

It was exciting to see that we took people out of the Somervilles, the Dorchesters and the Chelseas into the suburbs, and their whole lifestyles changed. It was exciting to me that this was changing the face of Boston.

Not everyone was pleased with the explosive growth of along the Route 128 corridor. Jacqueline Brooks Davison, an activist from Lexington, derisively called Blakely's firm "Cabot, Cabot and Grab-It" amid the development boom. Such sentiments, while common today, were in the distinct minority during the 1950's.

This 2004 photo shows the southbound I-95 and MA 128 (Yankee Division Highway) at EXIT 21 (MA 16 / Washington Street) in Newton. The service area just ahead predates construction of the Interstate highway system and was "grandfathered" into Route 128 when the I-95 designation was added in 1973. (Photo by Jim K. Georges.)

DEVELOPMENT BEGETS 128 WIDENING: By the end of the 1950's, the Route 128 corridor was fast becoming a victim of its own success. Originally designed to handle 25,000 vehicles per day (AADT), MA 128 carried anywhere from 40,000 to 75,000 vehicles per day by the late 1950's, taxing the capacity of the four-lane expressway.

Beginning in 1958, and continuing through 1964, the MassDPW reconstructed 46 miles of MA 128 from Lynnfield south to Braintree. In addition to replacing 50 of the original 126 cut-stone bridges, the MassDPW widened the following sections:

  • I-95 / MA 128 - EXIT 44 (US 1 and MA 129) in Lynnfield to I-95 / MA 128 - EXIT 37 (I-93 / Northern Expressway) in Reading: six lanes

  • I-95 / MA 128 - EXIT 37 in Reading to I-95 / MA 128 - EXIT 20 (MA 9) in Wellesley: eight lanes, with C/D roads at I-90 and US 3 interchanges

  • I-95 / MA 128 - EXIT 20 in Wellesley to I-95 / MA 128 - EXIT 15 (US 1) in Dedham: six lanes

  • I-95 / MA 128 - EXIT 15 in Dedham to I-93 / US 1 - EXIT 4 (MA 24 / Fall River Expressway) in Randolph: six lanes

  • I-93 / US 1 - EXIT 4 in Randolph to EXIT 7 (MA 3 / Southeast Expressway and Pilgrims Highway) in Braintree: eight lanes

During this period, the MassDPW also reconstructed tightly spaced interchanges, added shoulders, and built new acceleration-deceleration lanes, bringing the highway's design standards up to the Interstate highways of the era. The MassDPW did not reconstruct the 23-mile-long, four-lane section from Peabody to Gloucester.

A NEW IDENTITY FOR ROUTE 128: In 1973, Governor Francis Sargent canceled the unbuilt sections of the controversial Southwest and Northeast expressways, on which I-95 was to be routed through the city of Boston. The final report of the Boston Transportation Planning Review (BTPR) recommended that I-95 be routed along MA 128 from Canton north to Peabody. In addition, the I-93 designation was routed (via the Central Artery and the Southeast Expressway) to the Canton-to-Braintree stretch of MA 128.

The MA 128 corridor took on another identity in terms of its industrial complexion. During the 1970's, military-industrial firms such as Raytheon that defined the early days of the Route 128 corridor gave way to Digital Equipment, Wang Computer and Data General, firms that defined the rise of the minicomputer era.

As a result of these developments, congestion from commuter traffic from the minicomputer boom, as well as from long-distance traffic generated by the new I-95 designation, once again tested the capacity of the highway. By the 1980's, the average section of I-95 / MA 128 from Wellesley to Woburn carried approximately 150,000 vehicles per day. For some time, officials considered constructing another beltway between MA 128 and I-495 (to be called the "Middle Circumferential Highway"), but this proposal was short-lived.

Beginning in the late 1970's, the Yankee Division Highway was reconstructed through Peabody to accommodate the new interchange between MA 128 and I-95. During the first stage of the modernization project, at-grade intersections at Summit Street and Forest Street were removed. The reconstruction project was accelerated in 1984 when work began to realign the existing MA 128, and to construct a new "semi-directional T" interchange with I-95. When the project was completed in 1988, it finally brought the Massachusetts stretch of I-95 to completion more than 30 years after it had been planned.

In 1989, the US 1 designation was added along MA 128 / I-95 / I-93 from Dedham to Braintree. (Perhaps to avoid confusion on road signs, the MA 128 designation was dropped from the I-93 section of the Yankee Division Highway in 1997.)

Despite these changes in identity over the years, most commuters and residents still refer to the highway as "Route 128," not as I-95 or I-93. Because of this, the Massachusetts Highway Department (MHD) twice backed away from plans - in 1997 and again in 2004 - to drop the MA 128 designation along the I-95 section from Canton to Peabody.

This 2005 photo shows the northbound I-95 and MA 128 (Yankee Division Highway) approaching EXIT 13 (University Avenue / Route 128 Station) in Dedham. MA 128 begins at this point just west of the I-95 / I-93 junction at EXIT 14. (Photo by Jim K. Georges.)

ACCOMMODATING AN EVER-INCREASING TRAFFIC LOAD: According to the MHD, traffic counts along the Yankee Division Highway are as follows:

  • approximately 160,000 vehicles per day along the I-93 section from Braintree to Canton

  • approximately 150,000 vehicles per day along the I-95 section Canton north to the Massachusetts Turnpike (I-90) in Weston

  • approximately 175,000 vehicles per day along the I-95 section from Weston north to I-95 (Blue Star Memorial Highway) in Peabody

  • approximately 70,000 vehicles per day along the MA 128 section from Peabody to Beverly

  • approximately 35,000 vehicles per day from Beverly to Gloucester

Since 1991, the MHD has permitted the use of the emergency shoulders as rush-hour travel lanes along the I-95 section from EXIT 20 (MA 9) in Wellesley south to EXIT 12 (I-93) in Canton, and along the I-93 section from EXIT 1 (I-95) to EXIT 4 (MA 24 / Fall River Expressway) in Randolph. However, many transportation experts believe that the shoulder lanes are at best a short-term measure to increase capacity, and at worst a safety and operational hazard.

To maintain the existing roadway and accommodate traffic growth, the MHD has scheduled the following projects along the Route 128 corridor:

  • The MassDPW resurfaced the eight-lane I-95 / MA 128 through Lexington and Burlington. The $13 million project was completed in late 2001.

  • The MassDPW began work in 2003 to build new bridges along I-95 / MA 128 from EXIT 20 (MA 9) in Wellesley south to EXIT 12 (I-95 / I-93) in Canton. The new bridge construction is the first stage of a $150 million project to construct an additional lane in each direction. Along most of this section, the highway presently accommodates six lanes (three in each direction). The project is scheduled for completion in 2009.

These photos from 2000 show the northbound MA 128 (Yankee Division Highway) through the Peabody-Danvers-Beverly area. This original four-lane section was built during the 1940's and early 1950's. (Photos by Steve Anderson.)

CHANGES FOR INTERCHANGES: During the late 1980's and early 1990's, the MHD made some minor changes at EXIT 12 (I-95 / I-93) in Canton and EXIT 32 (US 3 / Northwest Expressway) in Burlington. At both interchanges, where radial expressways were to continue into Boston (but had been canceled two decades earlier), the MHD replaced the existing "cloverleaf" loop ramps with "trumpet" interchange ramps.

More ambitious work is planned for EXIT 12, where the MHD plans to rebuild the interchange between I-95 and I-93. The first stage of the project, which includes widening the southbound ramp from MA 128 to I-95 to two lanes, and making improvements to nearby EXIT 13 (Route 128 Railroad Station), is being incorporated into the MA 128 (I-95) Canton-to-Wellesley widening project, and is scheduled for completion in 2004. Full reconstruction of EXIT 12, which will include the construction of new flyover ramps (from northbound I-95 to northbound MA 128, and from southbound I-93 to southbound I-95), is not expected to begin until the end of this decade.

To the north, the MHD resumed studies in 2001 for a rebuilt EXIT 37 (I-93 / Northern Expressway) in Reading. Handling more than 350,000 vehicles per day (AADT), the 1950's-style cloverleaf interchange is a chokepoint for New Hampshire-bound traffic and suffers from a high accident rate. Amid concerns that the state would have to condemn as many as 90 properties in order to rebuild the interchange, some community groups sought to thwart the state's efforts. To address wider issues in the area of the interchange, the MHD initiated a new planning study in 2004 that involves the "I-93 / I-95 Interchange Task Force," which is made up of Federal and state agencies, state and local officials, community members and other interested organizations. Engineers reduced ramp design speeds to 40 MPH (from 50 MPH) to reduce property takings.

In 2007, the task force narrowed 16 alternatives down to the following two plans:

  • ALTERNATIVE H3-OS: A pair of new two-lane flyover ramps would be built for the southbound I-95 / MA 128 to southbound I-93 and northbound I-95 / MA 128 to northbound I-93 movements, replacing the existing loop ramps. The southbound I-93 to southbound I-95 / MA 128 and northbound I-93 to northbound I-95 / MA 128 ramps would be realigned to permit a higher design speed within the existing interchange right-of-way. This alternative is estimated to cost $160 million.

  • ALTERNATIVE H3-US: In this alternative, there would be a two-lane flyover ramp for the northbound I-95 / MA 128 to northbound I-93 movement and a two-lane "flyunder" ramp for the southbound I-95 / MA 128 to southbound I-93 movement. As in alternative H3-OS, the southbound I-93 to southbound I-95 / MA 128 and northbound I-93 to northbound I-95 / MA 128 ramps would be realigned to permit a higher design speed within the existing interchange right-of-way. This alternative is estimated to cost $249 million.

Both alternatives include reconfiguration of the ramps at EXIT 36 (Washington Street) in Woburn. A final decision is expected by 2008, with construction slated to take place between 2009 and 2014.

This photo simulation shows the interchange between MA 128 (I-95) and I-93 in Reading looking north. In the "alternative H3-US" shown here, there is one flyover ramp and one flyunder ramp. The other alternative makes use of two flyover ramps. (Photos by Steve Anderson.)

EXTENDING THROUGH CAPE ANN: The original plans for Route 128 called for a northern extension of the expressway north through Rockport to Pigeon Cove, at the northern tip of Cape Ann. While the extension to Pigeon Cove had been canceled by the late 1960's, the exit numbers along the Peabody-to-Gloucester section of MA 128, which begin at EXIT 9 (MA 127 / Eastern Avenue) in Gloucester, still reveal the existence of the long-abandoned proposal. An unfinished highway stub at Blackburn Circle at Gloucester also hints at the unbuilt extension to Rockport.

From Dedham to Braintree, the designation on the Yankee Division Highway should be changed from I-93 to I-595. The I-93 designation would then be shifted south and east to the Pilgrims Highway (MA 3). The Dedham-Braintree stretch also should be widened to eight lanes, eliminating the dangerous travel conditions of the shoulder lane.

Along the 23-mile-long section from Peabody north to Gloucester, exit ramps should be reconstructed, new shoulders should be added, and acceleration-deceleration lanes should be improved. Exit numbering would be reset at EXIT 1 at the "Peabody split" and continue in ascending order north to Gloucester.

SOURCES: Master Highway Plan for the Boston Metropolitan Area, Massachusetts Department of Public Works (1948); "Report on Proposed Reconstruction, Yankee Division Highway (Route 128)," Massachusetts Department of Public Works (1958); Route 128 Study, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1958); "A Report of Progress," Massachusetts Department of Public Works (1962); Recommended Highway and Transit Plan, Massachusetts Department of Public Works (1968); "The Massachusetts Highway Story," Massachusetts Department of Public Works (1969); Boston Transportation Planning Review: Final Study Summary Report, Massachusetts Department of Public Works (1972); "The Last Road to Boston" by Yanni Tsipis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1999); "Fabled Route 128 at Heart of New England High Tech" by Richard Bruner, Semiconductor Magazine (June 2001); "Route 128, the Baby Boomer of Highways, Turns 50" by Thomas C. Palmer, Jr., The Boston Globe (8/19/2001); "At 50th Birthday, Route 128 Serves Boston Far Beyond Visionary Engineer's Dream" by Christopher Cox, The Boston Herald (8/22/2001); "Highway Needs Cause Safety Breakdown" by Mac Daniel, The Boston Globe (2/10/2002); "State Suspends Highway Study As Interchange Draw Fire" by Mac Daniel, The Boston Globe (9/26/2002); "Proposal to Widen Route 128 Finally Taking Concrete Steps" by Judith Forman, The Boston Globe (10/27/2002); "Added Lanes Posed As Quick-Fix Plan" by Caroline Louise Cole, The Boston Globe (12/12/2002); Building Route 128 by Yanni Tsipis and David Kruh, Arcadia Press (2003); "Exit Ahead for Route 128: State Seeks To End Number Confusion" by Mac Daniel, The Boston Globe (2/25/2004); "Route 128 Revisited" by Chad Konecky, The Boston Herald (3/12/2004); "I-93 Crossing Plans Develop" by Michael Marotta, The Boston Herald (10/06/2004); "I-93 / I-95 Interchange Transportation Study-Project Briefing," Massachusetts Highway Department (2004); I-93 / I-95 Interchange Transportation Study: Final Report, Massachusetts Executive Office of Transportation (2007); Library of Congress-American Memory Collection; Massachusetts Highway Department; Paul Anderson; John Cairns; John Carr; David Chesler; Adriel Edwards; Jay Hogan; Neil Kelly; Thomas Lee; Steve LeVeille; Dan Moraseski; Paul O'Brien; George Sanborn; Paul Schlictman; Jack Suslak; Alexander Svirsky.

  • MA 128 shield by Barry L. Camp.
  • I-95, I-93, US 1, and I-595 shields by Ralph Herman.
  • Lightposts by Millerbernd Manufacturing Company.




  • Interstate 95-Massachusetts exit lists (northbound and southbound) by Steve Anderson.
  • MA 128 exit list (northbound and southbound; north of Peabody) by Steve Anderson


  • Yankee Division Highway (MA 128, I-95, I-93, and US 1)

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